The nature of the threat
Although it is impossible to know exact numbers of victims, we do know that modern slavery has been on the increase. Many victims work in the construction industry, in agriculture, in the sex industry, and in places like nail bars, car washes, and cannabis farms. Children are found working in all of these situations, as well as in sexual slavery.
Many victims have been trafficked from overseas – frequently from eastern Europe, south east Asia, and Africa – and their exploitation often begins en route. British victims tend to have fallen on difficult times, making them vulnerable to the lure of well-paid work complete with decent accommodation, which proves a cruel lie.
Potential victims of human trafficking rescued as a result of NCA activity in 2017/18
Most victims are ‘recruited’ in person, although some who find themselves trapped in the sex industry have been ensnared through online job adverts and social media websites. In cases of sexual exploitation, adult services websites often unwittingly play a key role in expanding offenders’ client bases.
In some cases victims are threatened and can suffer extreme violence as the criminals exert control. Many have their identity documents confiscated and have most of their earnings withheld as 'payment' for living costs or for their journey to the UK.
Although some larger organised crime groups are involved, people are also trafficked by looser collaborating networks often involved in additional forms of serious criminality, including drugs and firearms trafficking.
Eradicating modern slavery and human trafficking is one of our highest priorities. We work with partners in the UK and around the world to pursue offenders, safeguard victims and to prevent vulnerable people in source countries from becoming victims. Our efforts against modern slavery and human trafficking are led by our Modern Slavery Human Trafficking Unit (MSHTU).
We lead our own investigations into modern slavery, often pioneering innovative methods to disrupt traffickers and make it difficult for them to operate. We share tactics and intelligence in collaboration with partners – police forces, regional organised crime units and international law enforcement.
We advise partners on:
the disruption and prosecution of identified offenders
best evidence and operational practice
Preventing modern slavery and human trafficking
It looks likely that the number of victims of modern slavery globally will continue to rise over the coming years. It is vital that we educate potential victims about the risks, how to avoid becoming a victim, and what to do if they are being exploited. We run communications campaigns, both within the UK and in the most common source countries.
We also raise awareness amongst the wider population about how to spot the signs – this year we organised a UK-wide travelling exhibition. The more people who can recognise and report modern slavery the more effectively we can safeguard victims and bring the traffickers to justice.
Reporting modern slavery
Slavery may be closer to you than you think. There could be victims of exploitation working in domestic servitude or forced labour on your street.
If you suspect modern slavery, report it to the Modern Slavery Helpline on 08000 121 700 or the police on 101. In an emergency always call 999. Don't leave it to someone else. Your information could save a life.
National Referral Mechanism
The National Referral Mechanism is a framework for identifying victims of human trafficking or modern slavery and ensuring they receive the appropriate support.
On 29 April 2019 the Home Office assumed responsibility for all areas of the NRM, including referrals, decision making and data collection.
Prior to that date the NCA was responsible for collecting data on the NRM, and that data can still be found here. For statistics prior to 2017, please visit the National Archive.